Figure 2
Anterior view of the elbow showing the PIN as it enters the radial tunnel
Image is from 3D4Medical’s Essential Anatomy 5 application

Radial Tunnel Syndrome – Maybe That’s Not Tennis Elbow…

Summary A look at Radial Tunnel Syndrome, a condition often mistaken for lateral epicondylitis, its pathology and how to effectively assess and treat it. Introduction Lateral epicondylitis, commonly referred to as tennis elbow, is one of the most prevalent upper extremity overuse conditions. Originally perceived as an inflammatory condition of tendon fiber tearing, it is […]

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Figure 2
The pes cavus foot that is common in CMT disease
Image courtesy of Wikipedia

Exploring Charcot Marie Tooth Disease

Summary A description of Charcot Marie-Tooth disease, a systemic nerve condition often mistaken for local nerve compression problems, and how to assess and treat it. Introduction The longer you stay in practice, the more likely it is that you will encounter a wide array of compromised health conditions that your clients present with. Sometimes a […]

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The Manual Resistive Test

Summary A review of the Manual Resistive Test, one of the most important aspects of a physical examination, and its range of uses in identifying soft-tissue pathologies. Introduction Physical examination remains one of the most valuable aspects of assessing the integrity of soft-tissues. While high-tech diagnostic studies can be helpful for examining the structure of […]

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Figure 1
Distal femur is cut away to show ACL
Image is from 3D4Medical’s Complete Anatomy application

An Inside Look at the Cruciate Ligaments

Introduction The knee is the largest joint in the human body. And it is also a common location for injury, usually due to ligament damage. The reason for this is that the lower extremity skeletal structure is inherently unstable. If you consider how the bones are arranged for normal standing, walking and running activities, it […]

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Episode 36: Research and Education with Robin Anderson

Whitney Lowe: This episode of the thinking practitioner is sponsored by Handspring Publishing. Handspring has become one of the preeminent publishers focused on manual therapy topics and their catalog reads like a who’s who of great pioneers in our field. Handspring also offers a series of webinars called Move to Learn, which are free 45-minute […]

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Figure 5
Patellar retinaculum (highlighted in yellow) helps transmit contractile forces from the quadriceps to the tibia
Image is from 3D4Medical’s Complete Anatomy application

Exploring Tendon Sheaths and Retinacula

One of the unique mechanical properties of our human structure is the presence of a retinaculum (plural: retinacula) around many of the joints of the body. A retinaculum is a band or membrane that holds an organ or part in its place. It may also be defined as a thickening of the deep fascia in […]

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Figure 1
Hamstring tendons connect with sacrotuberous ligament
Image is from 3D4Medical’s Complete Anatomy application

Fascial Connections in the Sacroiliac Region

The sacroiliac (SI) joint is one of the most biomechanically complex joints in the body. It is close to the body’s center of gravity and is acted on by lever forces from three directions (spine and each lower extremity). Pain may occur in the SI joint from joint pathology, such as misalignment of the rough […]

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Figure 1
The connective tissue layers surrounding nerve tissue

Adverse Neural Tension

A great deal of emphasis is placed on maintaining flexibility in the soft tissues, such as muscle, in order to maintain optimum function and reduce injury. However, other structures or systems must also have flexibility or pliability during movement. The nervous system, which is more commonly perceived as a network of communication lines, actually needs […]

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The Gamma Efferent System

Everyone learned about muscle spindles in their basic training, but they are such a fundamentally important part of the neurological system that reviewing them is worthwhile. During muscle contraction, the central nervous system (CNS) sends signals to make muscles contract. It is the muscle spindles that convey more specificity to the CNS, essentially providing more […]

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Figure 2

Scapulohumeral Rhythm

The shoulder has the greatest range of motion of any joint in the body. What is often overlooked in shoulder mechanics is that motion in in the shoulder is not purely at the glenohumeral joint. The significant range of motion of the shoulder is made possible by the coordinated movement at the glenohumeral joint and […]

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